by Vance Lauderdale
The Society of Entrepreneurs recently published a book profiling its members, called There’s Something in the Water, the title endeavoring to explain the innovative spirit that pervades this city. After all, from the groundbreaking music of Elvis Presley to the overnight delivery service of FedEx, Memphis has made its mark on the world.
Many innovators, for all their hard work, don’t quite make it, but over the years I’ve saluted those who made a valiant effort. I’m talking about Memphians such as Roy Noe, whose patented Xcercisor restored his failing health, or Clyde Washburn, who devised a better way (or so he thought) to attach license plates to automobiles.
And then there are the “unsung heroes,” whose ideas would have changed the face of our city, but for reasons I don’t know, their plans never left the drawing board. One of those was a suburban development to be called Country Club Estates. Don’t let the old-fashioned name fool you. This was promoted as a “city of the future” to be developed in the area bounded by Park Avenue, White Station, Quince, and Estate. It was patterned after a rather unusual subdivision in Radburn, New Jersey — surely one of the few times that New Jersey has been used as an inspirational model for anything.
A rather fuzzy map that ran in the May 1, 1953, edition of the Memphis Press-Scimitar showed how the Radburn Plan, as it came to be called, would be applied here. It’s basically a grid of major thoroughfares, with the residential streets laid out as neat rows of cul-de-sacs (most of us call them “coves”), with service roads running behind the homes. A centrally located park would include a lake and community center, and a large retail center would be constructed to the south. All the streets would be pedestrian friendly, with the smaller streets actually tunneling beneath the larger ones so no pedestrians would have to battle traffic.
2017 Innovation Awards Winner - UTHSC OB F.A.S.T.
by Aisling Maki
Innovation: OB F.A.S.T. (Obstetrical Feasible Approach to Safety Training), an innovative simulation program to train healthcare workers to efficiently handle obstetrical emergencies.
Shelby County has received national media attention for one of its most heartbreaking challenges — having one of the nation’s highest mortality rates, particularly among black infants. But last year, the Shelby County Health Department announced it had reached a historic milestone in decreasing infant mortality rates.
Data showed that in 2015 the rate of infant deaths among non-Hispanic blacks was reduced by nearly half, from a rate of 21.0 in 2003 down to 10.6. Dr. Giancarlo Mari, MD played an indispensable role in that development.
Mari is a man of many titles. At the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, he’s a professor, chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and director of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellowship. At Regional One Health, he’s the director of the High-Risk Obstetrics Center of Excellence.
He was born in Salerno, Italy, attended medical school at the University of Naples, completed a residency at the University of Parma, and taught and practiced in England and the Netherlands. Mari arrived in the U.S. in 1987, completing a research fellowship in pediatric cardiology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, then a physician-executive MBA from the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. He also received residency training in obstetrics and gynecology and maternal-fetal medicine at Yale University.
Mari, a dual U.S./Italian citizen, came to Memphis with his sights set on reducing the high infant-mortality rate in Shelby County. In 2008, he joined the faculty at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC) and, the same year, launched an innovative simulation program at Regional One Health, then called The Med.
He and his team looked at numerous models for decreasing infant mortality rates in the United States and abroad, but they ultimately decided to develop their own, called OB F.A.S.T., which stands for Obstetrical Feasible Approach to Safety Training.
The simulation-based model is designed to improve care for high-risk pregnancies and tackle the infant mortality rate. The model trains healthcare workers to efficiently handle obstetrical emergencies before, during and after delivery. These complications could include cardiac arrest, sepsis, anesthetic emergencies, respiratory distress, fetal heart rate distress, umbilical cord prolapse, and breech delivery.
It’s a multidisciplinary approach for dealing with emergencies before, during, and after delivery that stresses teamwork, effective communication, shared decision making, and exemplary knowledge of protocols for situations that require immediate response.
“Before 2008, infant mortality was above 20 percent of the expected rate,” says Mari, who humbly stresses that the program could not be successful without his team, particularly Dr. Danielle Tate, Bonnie Miller, RN, and Dr. Ravpreet Gill. “Since we started our program, the infant mortality rate dropped from 20 percent above the expected to 20 percent below the expected. Many people deserve credit for this.”
OB F.A.S.T has now trained between 500 and 1,000 health care providers in 20 U.S. states. Most recently, Mari and his team traveled to the province of Henan in China to share their successful model with healthcare practitioners there.
Mari was invited to China by Dr. Genxia Li, who had spent time working with Mari in Memphis in 2016 and was impressed with the program, particularly its multidisciplinary simulation training, which is relatively new in China.
“We were invited to go to China and to start the program over there,” says Mari, whose training manual has been translated into Chinese. “We trained doctors from 36 hospitals there. These doctors are now training other doctors in their own hospitals, and this is the reason our program is now becoming international. We plan eventually to look at other countries where we could go and train other people, as well.”
But OB F.A.S.T. is only one of Mari’s numerous accomplishments in saving the lives of mothers and babies. He also pioneered the assessment of fetal circulation with Doppler ultrasound. At Yale, he was the principal investigator of a multicenter research project that brought non-invasive Doppler ultrasound techniques to the diagnosis of fetal anemia. That protocol has since become the standard of care for the diagnosis of fetal anemia in the U.S. and many other countries.
He also developed a fellowship at UTHSC in maternal/fetal medicine to train physicians in high-risk obstetrical care and added a perinatal patient-safety nurse coordinator to the high-risk obstetrics program. He has brought cutting-edge surgery techniques to Regional One Health, the only Level 1 trauma center in a five-state region. He’s also a widely published researcher and internationally recognized author.
“I like the challenge,” Mari said. “My work in research has been focused on developing new tools and to discover new things … I always want to help other people and I want to develop new things.”
His innovation has meant the difference between life and death for high-risk pregnancy patients and their babies locally, nationally, and internationally.
by Samuel X. Cicci
At BRIDGES, the mission is to mold youth into effective leaders by embracing inclusion, diversity, and creativity. That process begins as soon as they set foot near the headquarters on A.W. Willis. The building stands as a pinnacle of unique design set amidst the edges of suburbia. “The architect didn’t want to impose on the neighborhood and overwhelm the houses across the street,” says Cynthia Ham, president and CEO of BRIDGES. “As you go more towards downtown, the building starts scaling up. That’s why it’s scaled to rise as the building goes west, like a bridge!”
The building’s facade is apt. As an institution, BRIDGES works to fill the gaps between different sectors of the community to create a more unified Memphis. To that end, Ham wants its focus to be as broad as possible. “Making sure that we get a diverse group of students who really reflect the demographics of the greater population is always a challenge, but I think overall BRIDGES has a really good reputation that’s been built over 30 years about bringing people together.” And there’s no better person to lead that community outreach than Ham. She knows Memphis, having been an integral part of its community for many years, having worked as the executive director of Memphis in May and a principal at Archer Malmo. As it stands, BRIDGES has connections with 162 schools and a presence in 52 zip codes. While students and employees are doing good work out in the community, all of that can be traced back to the main building.
2017 Innovation Awards Winner - Habitat For Humanity: Aging in Place
by Jon W. Sparks
Innovation: Habitat for Humanity of Greater Memphis' Aging in Place program has served more than 350 families by making improvements to housing so seniors can stay longer in their homes.
The battle against poverty in Memphis is a long one, requiring commitment and resources on many levels. If there’s no quick solution on the horizon, there are still victories to point to, and sometimes it’s the spirit of innovation that opens the doors.
Case in point is the Aging in Place program created by Habitat for Humanity of Greater Memphis. While Habitat is best known for building homes, it also has embraced a mission of providing repairs.
In 2012, the Plough Foundation commissioned the AdvantAge survey, which found that more than 7,000 seniors in Memphis were in need of home improvements. Most wanted to stay in their homes as long as possible, but some of the repair issues were making that difficult to achieve.
Those persuasive numbers buttressed Habitat’s Neighborhood Revitalization program launched in 2011 to make those critical fixes for homeowners, the majority of whom were seniors.
“We were asked to select a focus neighborhood where we could identify neighborhood stakeholders to get their feedback, see what resources were available to leverage so that we could really provide an impactful program to make the neighborhoods more sustainable,” says Julie Romine, director of programs and strategic alliances, who oversees the program.
Focusing first in the Uptown area, the program worked with the Community Redevelopment Agency to rehab more than 100 single-family home repairs.
“It was pretty sobering for our team to see the conditions that some of the seniors were living and how they had to adapt,” Romine says. Data showed some 90 percent of clients were very low income seniors — an average of $10,000 a year — with no other resources to make the fixes.
by Brian Douglas
Women live longer than men and face distinctly different challenges in funding their healthcare needs in retirement. According to a 2016 study by HealthView Services, a 65-year-old man who retires this year will spend an average of $200,000 on healthcare in retirement, while a woman will spend $235,000.
With these expenses in mind, it’s not surprising that the cost of healthcare is one of the biggest retirement planning concerns for Americans. It’s essential to plan for healthcare expenses, although it’s especially important for women. The following strategies can help create a plan to prevent a financial shortfall in retirement:
Estimate your healthcare costs. Begin by assessing your overall health and family health history, using your current annual medical and dental expenses as a starting point. For help projecting what these costs may be in retirement, consider using an online healthcare calculator. Many estimators can educate you on potential treatment costs for a variety of health and dental conditions. Knowing the challenges you may face with your health — and what they may cost — can make a difference in being prepared.
2017 Innovation Awards Winner - St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
by Samuel X. Cicci
Innovation: Pioneering gene therapy treatment has succeeded where bone marrow transplants have failed to correct immune function of young cancer patients. The upshot is that now hope exists for patients with "bubble boy disease."
For children afflicted by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), there is no margin for error. A lack of immune cells means that the children are unable to protect themselves from infection. Even minimal contact with another human being can be fatal. Most untreated children with SCID die within the first two years of their lives. Until recently, a matching bone marrow transplant from a sibling was the most effective treatment. The problem, however, is that many children do not have a matching donor. With a mismatched transplant, about 30 percent will die before they reach age 10. Past that, teenagers and young adults continue to experience fatal cases of immunodeficiency.
In the 1980’s, SCID was labeled as “bubble boy” disease, a reference to children who were forced to live in a sterile chamber to avoid infection. Between 40 and 100 infants are born with the disease each year. Fast forward to April 2016, and Dr. Brian Sorrentino, along with several colleagues from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, revealed study results that suggested a new safe and effective form of gene therapy treatment for patients with SCID-X1, the most common strain of SCID.
Gene therapy hadn’t been truly effective until then. Sometimes it would lead to a patient contracting leukemia. But St. Jude’s process, perfected over a 10 year period, has seen remarkable results. By combining lentivirus gene therapy, which uses a lentiviral vector to deliver a healthy gene into a host, with busulfan, a chemotherapy drug, doctors were able to rebuild the immune system and develop broader immunity in five young adults with the disorder.
The entire process included managing tests for vector safety, re-engineering a lentivirus to safely transport a healthy gene into a new host, and creating an entirely new way of manufacturing vectors. That last element is key for the treatment, and the solution was very surprising. “What we shifted to is using the AIDS virus,” Sorrentino says. “We take all of the AIDS genes out of the virus and just use the shell as a trojan horse for delivering the gene that’s broken and causes the SCID.”
University of Memphis Financial Lab Offers Glimpse Into Wall Street Dealings
by Samuel X. Cicci
The world of finance can be one of the most cutthroat industries in America, and those looking to make a career of it need to seize any advantage they can get. For local students, the University of Memphis Fogelman College of Business and Economics (FCBE) has a way to get ahead of the game.
Only so much of the pressure and winner-takes-all feel of finance can be conveyed in the classroom. To expand its repertoire of teaching tools, U of M turned the first floor of the FCBE into the Cook Analytics & Trading Lab. Funded and overseen by Michael W. Cook, founder and CEO of Southern Asset Management, the lab is set to mimic a Wall Street trading firm. Some of its features include real-time tickers, Bloomberg terminals, and access to various online databases. The resources available at the school make the lab a significant resource for students looking to move into the finance world.
“Teaching these classes here now becomes much more intuitive. It’s no longer just in the pages of a book; the students can see what’s actually happening,” says Vivek Sharma, manager of the lab. Over the last three years, the strategy of providing a hands-on approach to business and finance education is paying off.
Recently, two student teams at the FCBE have been recognized at competitions for outstanding financial work. A five-student team ranked in the top 5 percent at the Bloomberg Trading Competition. Dylan Ledbetter (MS, Information Systems, MSBA, Finance); Zachary Golden (MS, Information Systems); Yi Lu (Ph.D. candidate); Zachary Morton (MSBA, Finance); and Lokesh Chinthala (MS, Information Systems, reserve member) participated in “The University Challenge,” an eight-week trading simulation that tasked teams with competing for the highest absolute return on a $10 million portfolio. The Memphis team placed 13th out of 265 teams represented by 81 different schools.
2017 Innovation Awards Winners - Big River Crossing
by Jody Callahan
Innovation: It was a herculean effort to pull together all the parties and all funding, but now the Big River Crossing is the country's longest active rail/bicycle/pedestrian bridge and people are coming from all over to try it out.
When those who were involved in bringing the Big River Crossing to fruition talk about their work, one word pops up in nearly every conversation.
As in, it’s a miracle that the $18 million, nearly one-mile walking and biking bridge that spans the Mississippi River ever came to be, considering the obstacles stacked against it from the start.
They also point to one man who is responsible for that miracle: Memphis businessman Charlie McVean, founder of McVean Trading and Investments. If not for McVean’s leadership, his devotion, and his money, the Big River Crossing would have never been completed.
“It took Charlie McVean to make something happen,” says Charlie Newman, a longtime lawyer with Burch, Porter and Johnson who was brought into the project in its early days and made his own invaluable contributions.
Added Dow McVean, who also worked with his dad on the project: “That’s a hundred percent true.”
This story began years ago, when Charlie McVean and others wondered why you couldn’t ride your bike or take a walk across the Mississippi River.
“That’s part of the way he got this idea in the first place,” Dow McVean says. “He rode his bike lots of miles on the weekends, and he got frustrated at the lack of long distance, safe bike trails to ride in the area.”
That got McVean to thinking, says his son, speaking on behalf of his father.
Owner of Royal Studios
by Jon W. Sparks
The art of running an enterprise requires knowing when to change — and when to resist the temptation.
Lawrence “Boo” Mitchell has been cultivating that knowledge a good part of his life as part of the fabric of Royal Studios, a legendary hatchery that has, for 60 years, been drawing some of the world’s most accomplished hit-makers. His father, Willie Mitchell, took charge of the studio in 1970, and Boo, now 46, took over after Willie’s death in 2010.
Royal boasts of being one of the oldest perpetually operated recording studios in the world, and as the home of Hi Records in the early days, has spawned several million-sellers. Trumpeter Willie Mitchell came aboard as a session player in 1963 and made several hits while becoming increasingly involved in the studio’s operation. He eventually took over Royal and in the early 1970s would develop a singular expression and, aided by his collaboration with Al Green, give the world a distinctly Memphis sound.
Growing up in that atmosphere, Boo Mitchell performed and played plenty of music and, with his Pop at the control board, it was inevitable that he’d become increasingly interested in how the tunes were made. As a teenager, he was playing keyboards and writing songs. “That’s pretty much all I wanted to do,” he says. “And I loved the technology. My cousin and I used to say, ‘Oh, come on, Pop. We need this new, modern board and speakers,’ and Dad was always like, ‘Man, that stuff back there’ll do anything you want it to do.’ Eventually I go, ‘Man, he’s got more golden records than we do — he’s probably right.’ And he was.”
Sitting in his chair at the board, surrounded by studio equipment and furnishings that might well have been there in the 1970s — the studio has changed little since then — Boo says that vintage is now the future. “I had a meeting with a gentleman yesterday who wanted to redo his songs. He had stuff made in the late 1990s, early 2000s and it was dated. His synthesizers weren’t the old, old ones, they were more modern. I told him, “We’re gonna redo your stuff in a traditional way with real instruments and it’s gonna make it sound fresher than what you were doing back then — which was supposed to be futuristic.’”
The Education of Boo Mitchell
In 1993, the family opened Willie Mitchell’s, a Beale Street nightclub, where Boo worked and learned. The club closed in 1998 and Boo spent more time at Royal.
“For a couple of years I was doing odd things around the studio, a bit of engineering, getting into mastering, and eventually I started managing the studio in 2000,” he says.
His work was cut out for him.
We never had a logo and I think we were still renting a telephone from BellSouth,” Boo says. “So, I started getting more interested in the business of music around that time and just looking at things. I was like, ‘Pop, start looking at the bills and stuff,’ and ‘Pop, man, we’re still renting a telephone for $10 a month — we can buy a phone at Target.”
Boo wanted to streamline the operation, which was a commercial studio with a mom-and-pop feel and nothing even as basic as a logo and letterhead. “But my Dad was Willie Mitchell, you know, and he didn’t need a business card or a letterhead or any of those things.”
But business was picking up. They were doing some major sessions and Willie was producing records again, such as Al Green’s comeback records I Can’t Stop and Everything’s OK. “I was project coordinator for those two records,” Boo says, “so I started getting more into doing budgets and rounding up the musicians and making sure everybody got paid. That helped me look at the studio more as a business entity than just a great place to make music. It helped me dig into more of the business side of music. It was a good learning experience and good preparation skills for me.” That digging in helped him understand the workings of record sales, radio play, songwriting, and sync licensing. “It was a crash course for me,” he says.
“In 2004, out of necessity, I started getting back into the creative side doing engineering, producing more records, and engineering records with my Dad,” he says. With his management savvy, Boo was finding out when to resist the temptation to change but always striving to improve and stay current.
The State of the Music Industry
It’s still changing,” he says. “Man, I try to stay on top of technology in the industry.” For Boo, his membership in the Memphis chapter of The Recording Academy is crucial to that. He’s been a member of the Grammy organization for more than 10 years and a board member for more than five years. “It’s one of the smartest things I’ve done as a musician, an engineer, and a producer. It represents the whole music industry, not just specialized groups. The Grammys is at the forefront of fighting for musician’s rights, fighting for songwriter’s rights, and keeping up with new technology and trying to make sure that people are given proper credit.”
Boo remembers his astonishment and confusion when he first got an MP3 from iTunes. “It was Jack White’s Seven Nation Army, and I downloaded it, 99 cents. Then I’m looking all over my phone — ‘Where’s the credits? Where did they cut it? Who mixed it?’ That’s a real problem for creators because a lot of times we get our next gig depending on what our last gig was, so there’s this whole movement to try to get credits embedded into the MP3s.” He’s hoping that the current president of the Memphis chapter of The Recording Academy, Gebre Waddell, might be onto the answer. Waddell’s software company, Soundways, is doing innovative work in providing metadata in all the distribution pipelines so that credit goes where it’s due. The company also has developed sophisticated plug-ins for audio engineers.
Boo’s involvement with the Grammy organization’s efforts to keep up with technological advances is essential for him. “I’m connected with people all over the country that do what I do and are trying to make sure that there is a music business. Nobody wants to pay for music anymore, but we all have to live. There’s a lot to figure out, especially with streaming and all that. And the issues of rights where there’s a lot of money that American musicians don’t have access to because of our antiquated copyright laws.”
The Recording Academy, Boo says, is working to pass “Fair Play, Fair Pay” legislation, “because all over the world the musicians, and artists, and the background singers get paid for radio play. Over here in America, only the songwriters and the publisher get paid for radio play and because we don’t have that practice in America, there’s an excess of $200 million a year that is collected on behalf of American artists in places like Europe, Japan. But we don’t practice that and there’s no reciprocity, so the money stays in those countries.”
Evolving the Memphis Sound
It is somehow fitting that the historic 60-year-old studio with vintage equipment is also keeping on the edge of music.
“Memphis has so much rich history musically,” Boo says. “It’s like this big pie and Royal has a nice slice of it. We’ve kind of flown under the radar except for the inside people — the musicians and artists — that really know. But Royal was probably the second major recording studio opening after Sam Philips Recording Service and Sun Records. It was started with people who were working at Sun.”
Royal was bought in 1956 and officially opened in 1957 as the home of Hi Records. “It was known for its instrumentals and a lot of early rockabilly recordings were done here. When my Dad got here and started doing his R&B instrumentals, it gave the studio just a different breadth.”
From the get-go, Willie Mitchell brought a lot to the operation. His Willie Mitchell Combo was hugely popular, playing Beale Street clubs and parties (including one where Elvis Presley — a frequent club visitor — brought bride-to-be Priscilla). “The Beatles on their first North American tour rehearsed at Royal for a week,” Boo says, “because the Bill Black Combo was their opening act. That was in 1964, more Memphis music history that people don’t know much about. Royal has always survived.”
That included the riots after the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated. “They were burning businesses and people were tearing up neighborhoods. My dad had to go out of town and he got a bunch of winos in here, bought them a bunch of wine and was just like, ‘Man, watch my place.’ He didn’t bother to lock the door. When he got back from his gig, he didn’t know what he’d find. He opened the door and saw like 20 winos all laid out. ‘Hey, Willie! Yeah, we got you. Everything’s cool.’ Nothing was gone.”
That’s the story Boo tells when people insist that he needs to get the studio’s historic artifacts out and into a safe place. “I tell them it survived the riots of ’68 and I think it will be fine.” Boo keeps the spirit of surviving and independence. “My Dad was always trying to be different even with his band. Most of the music in the early ’50s, was big band, you know? He was trying to find a sound that was different, so he was like, ‘Well, I’m just gonna use two horns.’ He did the same thing here at Royal with redesigning the room. He wanted to be different and when he was working on something, wouldn’t even listen to the radio because he didn’t want to be influenced by somebody else’s music.”
Boo quotes Knox Phillips — son of legendary Sun Records founder Sam Phillips and a heralded producer, engineer, and Memphis music booster — as saying “Memphis represents the spirit of independent music.” Boo says, “I think my Dad and Royal are the epitome of that because he wanted all his stuff to be different and that’s why the studio looks the way it looks.”
And this is what shapes Boo’s vision of the studio and the music that comes out of it. “We’ve survived for so long because we haven’t conformed to any sort of traditional thing in any shape, form, or fashion. We could have replaced equipment, but why would anybody want to come to Royal if we’ve got the same stuff everybody else has got?”
It’s that idea of knowing when to change, and when to resist the temptation. “That’s how I run the business, just like he’s still alive — because he is. He lives in the music, he lives in the walls, you know what I mean? He lives in our hearts, so I’m always thinking, ‘I wonder what would Pop think about this?’”
Boo describes that as a baseline for him on how to improve the business and the music that comes out of it. “I still have my own ideas for what I think is going to make Royal better,” he says. “The beauty of that is I did a lot of that while he was alive, so I remember when I would present new ideas to him and how he felt about it. I learned and he let me evolve to where I understood that this place is already great, but that I could make more people aware of it.”
What does the future look like for Boo Mitchell and Royal Studios? “Man, I’d like for us to get back to our roots. My sister Oona and I started a label, Royal Records, so I’d like for everything to go full circle, to start producing amazing artists out of Memphis and get back to what that other thing Memphis was known for, and that’s amazing talent. We have some of the finest musicians and artists in the world. We just have to get them out there, get the world exposed to them. That’s a big part of what I want the future to be.”
If, in the process, Royal becomes an international destination for recording, then that’s fine with Boo. “To record at Royal is the most magical thing because we have the vibe. People come here and they get inspired. I’m inspired every time I walk through the building. There’s a magic here and there’s a gift here. I just want to share it with the world.”
by Jon W. Sparks
For 20 years, the best in Memphis have been getting schooled in how to be even better. In 1997, the first Leadership Development Intensive brought together some of Memphis’ most dynamic leaders with an eye to super-charge their effectiveness at work and in the community.
The high-level training program was conceived by Goals for Memphis, a nonprofit looking to make positive changes in Memphis. GFM would later become the Leadership Academy, then New Memphis Institute and now is known simply as New Memphis, which has been led by Nancy Coffee for the past 12 years.
The program came into being from a desire to provide top quality leadership training. GFM officials found that the North Carolina-based Center for Creative Leadership was the right partner to pull this effort off. For 20 years, it’s been a fruitful partnership. “There’s no other city in the country or the world that has this world-class leadership training developed and delivered to a local cohort of peer execs,” Coffee says.
The idea is that LDI is designed to work with executives at the top of their game. The session is a three-and-a-half-day residential experience held at the Madison Hotel. There are about two dozen participants in each session and what they get is essentially a detailed, personalized critique. Each provides a self-assessment with a thorough 360-degree inventory, interactions and case studies, and one-on-one feedback from expert coaches.
Participants find that they come out of the course with greater insight into themselves, the work they do, and a picture of how to take things to the next level.
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